VOLUME 3 - NUMBER 3 - 2023

Association between rheumatic musculoskeletal diseases and air pollution: myth or reality?


  • Giulia Zanetti, Francesca Pistillo, Giovanni Adami
  • Concise reviews, 95-99
  • Full text PDF

  • This review discusses the impact of air pollution exposure on rheumatic musculoskeletal diseases, and also considers air pollution assessment and its limitations. Rheumatic diseases are caused by dysregulation and excessive activation of the immune system, leading to systemic inflammation and immune-mediated damage. Air pollution, particularly particulate matter originating from fossil fuel combustion, increases the production of inflammatory cytokines and activates pathways involved in the inflammatory response. Long-term and short-term exposure to air pollution can be evaluated using various methodologies. Despite the limitations of exposure assessment, the review highlights the importance of monitoring air pollution levels to mitigate their harmful effects on human health and the environment.

  • KEY WORDS: Autoimmune diseases, rheumatic musculoskeletal diseases (RMDs), pollution, environment.